A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

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(Old Database about Coordination)

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BASQUE

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Cite as

Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Language isolate
Countries:Spain, France
Number of speakers:750,000
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV
Coordination types:and, or

Data Collection

The data were entered by an L2 speaker via an online survey.

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: There is plural marking in all combinations.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     Mutilaketagizonakkorrikaegitendute
boy.sgandman.sgrunprogaux.3pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     Mutileketagizonakkorrikaegitendute.
boy.plandman.sgrunprogaux.3pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(3)     Mutilaketagizonekkorrikaegitendute.
boy.sgandman.plrunprogaux.3pl
`The boy and the men run.'
(4)     Mutileketagizonekkorrikaegitendute-
boy.plandman.plrunprogaux.3pl
'The boys and the men run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: There is plural in all combinations.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(5)     Mutilakedogizonakkorrikaegitendu.
boy.sgorman.sgrunprogaux.3pl
`The boy or the man run.'
(6)     Mutilekedogizonakkorrikaegitendute.
boy.plorman.sgrunprogaux.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(7)     Mutilakedogizonekkorrikaegitendute.
boy.sgorman.plrunprogaux.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(8)     Mutilekedogizonekkorrikaegitendute.
boy.plorman.plrunprogaux.3pl
'The boys or the men run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: Mismatching person seems to be resolved following the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(10)     Zuketanikkorrikaegitendugu.
youandIrunprogaux.1pl
`You and I run.'
(11)     Niketazukkorrikaegitendugu.
Iandyourunprogaux.1pl
`I and you run.'
(12)     Guketaberaiekkorrikaegitendugu.
weandtheyrunprogaux.1pl
`We and they run.'
(13)     Beraieketagukkorrikaegitendugu.
theyandwerunprogaux.1pl
`They and we run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: Mismatching person seems resolved following the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(14)     Zukedonikkorrikaegitendugu.
youorIrunprogaux.1pl
`You or I run.'
(15)     Nikedozukkorrikaegitendugu.
Ioryourunprogaux.1pl
`I or you run.'
(16)     Gukedoberaiekkorrikaegitendugu.
Weortheyrunprogaux.1pl
`We or they run.'
(17)     Berakedogukkorrikaegitendugu.
theyorwerunprogaux.1pl
`They or we run.'