A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

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(Old Database about Coordination)

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STANDARD PERSIAN (TEHRANI DIALECT)

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Cite as

Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Indo-European (Indo-Iranian)
Countries:Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Russia, Azerbaijan
Number of speakers:70 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV
Coordination types:and, or

Data Collection

The data were entered by a native speaker via an online survey.

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     aanpesarvaaanmardmidavand.
theboy.sgandtheman.sgrun.3pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     aanpesaraanvaaanmardmidavand.
theboy.plandtheman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(3)     aanpesarvaaanmardaanmidavand.
theboy.sgandthemanplrun.3pl
`The boy and the men run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(6)     aanpesaryaaaanmardmidavand.
theboy.sgortheman.sgrun.3pl
`The boy or the man run.'
(7)     aanpesaraanyaaaanmardmidavand.
theboy.plortheman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(8)     aanpesaryaaaanmardaanmidavand.
theboy.sgortheman.plrun.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(9)     aanpesaraanyaaaanmardaanmidavand.
theboy.plortheman.plrun.3pl
`The boys or the men run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: Mismatching person seem to be resolved according to the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Note: Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(12)     tovamanmidavim.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(13)     manvatomidavim.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(14)     maavaaanhaamidavim.
weandtheyrun.1pl
`We and they run.'
(15)     aanhaavamaamidavim.
theyandwerun.1pl
`They and we run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: Mismatching person seem to be resolved according to the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Note: Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(16)     toyaamanmidavim.
youorIrun.1pl
'You or I run.'
(17)     manyaatomidavim.
Ioryourun.1pl
'I or you run.'
(18)     maayaaunaamidavim.
weortheyrun.1pl
'We or they run.'
(19)     unaayaamaamidavim.
theyorwerun.1pl
'They or we run.'