A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

Menu

Database
Questionnaire
(Old Database about Coordination)

Languages

Menu

BOSNIAN-CROATIAN-MONTENEGRIN-SERBIAN

Download as


(requires db.cls)


(note that Microsoft Word has problems with Unicode signs; we recommend using LibreOffice or Google Docs)

Cite as

Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Indo-European (Slavic)
Countries:Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia
Number of speakers:21 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV, VS
Coordination types:and, or

Data collection

The data are from a judgment elicitation with a native speaker from Shabac, Serbia. The speaker was asked to rate sentences on a scale from 1 to 5, 5 being the best possible score. In the examples, we translate the numeric judgments as follows: 1 = *, 2 = ??, 3 = ?, 4/5 = fully grammatical (Data by Marija Savić)

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all combinations.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     Dečakimuškaractrče.
boy.sgandman.sgrun.3pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     *Dečakimuškaractrči.
boy.sgandman.sgrun.3sg
`The boy and the man run.'
(3)     Dečaciimuškaractrče.
boy.plandman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(4)     *Dečaciimuškaractrči.
boy.plandman.sgrun.3sg
`The boys and the man run.'
(5)     Dečakimuškarcitrče.
boy.sgandman.plrun.3pl
`The boy and the men run.'
(6)     *Dečakimuškarcitrči.
boy.sgandman.plrun.3sg
`The boy and the men run.'
(7)     Dečaciimuškarcitrče.
boy.plandman.plrun.3pl
`The boys and the men run.'

VS order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all combinations. 3sg agreement gets better, if the first conjunct is singular and if there is an intonation pause after the first conjunct.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(8)     Trčedečakimuškarac.
run.3plboy.sgandman.sg
(9)     *Trčidečakimuškarac.
run.3sgboy.sgandman.sg
`The boy and the man run.'
(10)     Trčedečaciimuškarac.
run.3plboy.plandman.sg
`The boys and the man run.'
(11)     *Trčidečaciimuškarac.
run.3sgboy.plandman.sg
`The boys and the man run.'
(12)     Trčedečakimuškarci.
run.3plboy.sgandman.pl
`The boy and the men run.'
(13)     *Trčidečakimuškarci.
run.3sgboy.sgandman.pl
`The boy and the men run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(14)     Dečakilimuškaractrče.
boy.sgorman.sgrun.3pl
`The boy or the man run.'
(15)     *Dečakilimuškaractrči.
boy.sgorman.sgrun.3sg
`The boy or the man run.'
(16)     Dečaciilimuškaractrče.
boy.plorman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(17)     *Dečaciilimuškaractrči.
boy.plorman.sgrun.3sg
`The boys or the man run.'
(18)     Dečakilimuškarcitrče.
boy.sgorman.plrun.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(19)     *Dečakilimuškarcitrči.
boy.sgorman.plrun.3sg
`The boy or the men run.'
(20)     Dečaciilimuškarcitrče.
boy.plorman.plrun.3pl
`The boys or the men run.'

VS order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases. The option with 3sg agreement gets better, if both conjuncts are singular and if there is an intonation pause after the first conjunct

1st | 2ndsgpl
sg?sg/plpl
plplpl

Examples:

(21)     Trčedečakilimuškarac.
run.3plboy.sgorman.sg
`The boy or the man run.'
(22)     ?Trčidečakilimuškarac.
run.3sgboy.sgorman.sg
`The boy or the man run.'
(23)     Trčedečaciilimuškarac.
run.3plboy.plorman.sg
`The boys or the man run.'
(24)     *Trčidečaciilimuškarac.
run.3sgboy.plorman.sg
`The boys or the man run.'
(25)     Trčedečakilimuškarci.
run.3plboy.sgorman.pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(26)     *Trčidečakilimuškarci.
run.3sgboy.sgorman.pl
`The boy or the men run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: Person resolution follows the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Number is resolved to plural.) The conjunctions ti i ja (``you and I'') and on i ja (``he and I'') are equivalent to the meaning of ``we'' and can be dropped just like ``we''. Similarly, ti i on and on i ti are equivalent to the meaning of ``you(pl.)'' and can also be dropped. The context usually tells the referents. However, they are not ungrammatical. Conjunctions that begin with ja (``I'') are considered impolite and are therefore not preferred by speakers.

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl2pl
31pl2pl

Examples:

(27)     *Jaititrčim.
Iandyourun.1sg
`I and you run.'
(28)     *Jaititrčiš.
Iandyourun.2sg
`I and you run.'
(29)     Jaititrčimo.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(30)     *Jaititrče.
Iandyourun.3pl
`I and you run.'
(31)     *Tiijatrčim.
youandIrun.1sg
`You and I run.'
(32)     *Tiijatrčiš.
youandIrun.2sg
`You and I run.'
(33)     (Tiija)trčimo.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(34)     *Tiijatrče.
youandIrun.3pl
`You and I run.'
(35)     *Jaiontrčim.
Iandherun.1sg
`I and he run.'
(36)     *Jaiontrči.
Iandherun.3sg
`I and he run.'
(37)     Jaiontrčimo.
Iandherun.1pl
`I and he run.'
(38)     *Jaiontrče.
Iandherun.3pl
`I and he run.'
(39)     *Onijatrčim.
heandIrun.1sg
`He and I run.'
(40)     *Onijatrči.
heandIrun.3sg
`He and I run.'
(41)     (Onija)trčimo.
heandIrun.1pl
`He and I run.'
(42)     *Onijatrče.
heandIrun.3pl
`He and I run.'
(43)     *Tiiontrči.
youandherun.3sg
`You and he run.'
(44)     *Tiiontrčiš.
youandherun.2sg
`You and he run.'
(45)     (Tiion)trčite.
youandherun.2pl
`You and he run.'
(46)     *Tiiontrče.
youandherun.3pl
`You and he run.'
(47)     *Onititrči.
heandyourun.3sg
`He and you run.'
(48)     *Onititrčiš.
heandyourun.2sg
`He and you run.'
(49)     (Oniti)trčite.
heandyourun.2pl
`He and you run.'
(50)     *Onititrče.
heandyourun.3pl
`He and you run.'

VS order

Pattern: Person resolution follows the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl2pl
31pl2pl

Examples:

(51)     *Trčimjaiti.
run.1sgIandyou
`I and you run.'
(52)     *Trčišjaiti.
run.2sgIandyou
`I and you run.'
(53)     Trčimojaiti.
run.1plIandyou
`I and you run.'
(54)     *Trčejaiti.
run.3plIandyou
`I and you run.'
(55)     *Trčimtiija.
run.1sgyouandI
`You and I run.'
(56)     *Trčištiija.
run.2sgyouandI
`You and I run.'
(57)     Trčimotiija.
run.1plyouandI
`You and I run.'
(58)     *Trčetiija.
run.3plyouandI
`You and I run.'
(59)     *Trčimjaion.
run.1sgIandhe
`I and he run.'
(60)     *Trčijaion.
run.3sgIandhe
`I and he run.'
(61)     Trčimojaion.
run.1plIandhe
`I and he run.'
(62)     *Trčejaion.
run.3plIandhe
`I and he run.'
(63)     *Trčimonija.
run.1sgheandI
`He and I run.'
(64)     *Trčionija.
run.3sgheandI
`He and I run.'
(65)     Trčimoonija.
run.1plheandI
`He and I run.'
(66)     *Trčeonija.
run.3plheandI
`He and I run.'
(67)     *Trčitiion.
run.3sgyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(68)     *Trčištiion.
run.2sgyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(69)     Trčitetiion.
run.2plyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(70)     *Trčetiion.
run.3plyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(71)     *Trčioniti.
run.3sgheandyou
`He and you run.'
(72)     *Trčišoniti.
run.2sgheandyou
`He and you run.'
(73)     Trčiteoniti.
run.2plheandyou
`He and you run.'
(74)     *Trčeoniti.
run.3plheandyou
`He and you run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: Person resolution follows the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl2pl
31pl2pl

Examples:

(75)     *Jailititrčim.
Ioryourun.1sg
`I or you run.'
(76)     *Jailititrčiš.
Ioryourun.2sg
`I or you run.'
(77)     Jailititrčimo.
Ioryourun.1pl
`I or you run.'
(78)     *Jailititrče.
Ioryourun.3pl
`I or you run.'
(79)     *Tiilijatrčim.
youorIrun.1sg
`You or I run.'
(80)     *Tiilijatrčiš.
youorIrun.2sg
`You or I run.'
(81)     Tiilijatrčimo.
youorIrun.1pl
`You or I run.'
(82)     *Tiilijatrče.
youorIrun.3pl
`You or I run.'
(83)     *Jailiontrčim.
Iorherun.1sg
`I or he run.'
(84)     *Jailiontrči.
Iorherun.3sg
`I or he run.'
(85)     Jailiontrčimo.
Iorherun.1pl
`I or he run.'
(86)     *Jailiontrče.
Iorherun.3pl
`I or he run.'
(87)     *Onilijatrčim.
heorIrun.1sg
`He or I run.'
(88)     *Onilijatrči.
heorIrun.3sg
`He or I run.'
(89)     Onilijatrčimo.
heorIrun.1pl
`He or I run.'
(90)     *Onilijatrče.
heorIrun.3pl
`He or I run.'
(91)     *Tiiliontrči.
youorherun.3sg
`You or he run.'
(92)     *Tiiliontrčiš.
youorherun.2sg
`You or he run.'
(93)     Tiiliontrčite.
youorherun.2pl
`You or he run.'
(94)     *Tiiliontrče.
youorherun.3pl
`You or he run.'
(95)     *Onilititrči.
heoryourun.3sg
`He or you run.'
(96)     *Onilititrčiš.
heoryourun.2sg
`He or you run.'
(97)     Onilititrčite.
heoryourun.2pl
`He or you run.'
(98)     *Onilititrče.
heoryourun.3pl
`He or you run.'

VS order

Pattern: Person resolution follows the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl2pl
31pl2pl

Examples:

(99)     *Trčimjailiti.
run.1sgIoryou
`I or you run.'
(100)     *Trčišjailiti.
run.2sgIoryou
`I or you run.'
(101)     Trčimojailiti.
run.1plIoryou
`I or you run.'
(102)     *Trčejailiti.
run.3plIoryou
`I or you run.'
(103)     *Trčimtiilija.
run.1sgyouorI
`You or I run.'
(104)     *Trčištiilija.
run.2sgyouorI
`You or I run.'
(105)     Trčimotiilija.
run.1plyouorI
`You or I run.'
(106)     *Trčetiilija.
run.3plyouorI
`You or I run.'
(107)     *Trčimjailion.
run.1sgIorhe
`I or he run.'
(108)     *Trčijailion.
run.3sgIorhe
`I or he run.'
(109)     Trčimojailion.
run.1plIorhe
`I or he run.'
(110)     *Trčejailion.
run.3plIorhe
`I or he run.'
(111)     *Trčimonilija.
run.1sgheorI
`He or I run.'
(112)     *Trčionilija.
run.3sgheorI
`He or I run.'
(113)     Trčimoonilija.
run.1plheorI
`He or I run.'
(114)     *Trčeonilija.
run.3plheorI
`He or I run.'
(115)     *Trčitiilion.
run.3sgyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(116)     *Trčištiilion.
run.2sgyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(117)     Trčitetiilion.
run.2plyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(118)     *Trčetiilion.
run.3plyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(119)     *Trčioniliti.
run.3sgheoryou
`He or you run.'
(120)     *Trčišoniliti.
run.2sgheoryou
`He or you run.'
(121)     Trčiteoniliti.
run.2plheoryou
`He or you run.'
(122)     *Trčeoniliti.
run.3plheoryou
`He or you run.'