A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

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Questionnaire
(Old Database about Coordination)

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SPANISH (VENEZUELAN)

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Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Romance (Spanish)
Countries:Venezuela
Number of speakers:30 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV, VS (Note: VS order is linked to particular information-structural interpretations.)
Coordination types:and, or

Data collection

The data shown here were elicited with a native speaker who was born in Caracas and lived there until the age of 19. The speaker was asked to rate sentences on a scale from 1 to 5, 5 being the best possible score. In the examples, we translate the numeric judgments as follows: 1 = *, 2 = ??, 3 = ?, 4/5 = fully grammatical (Data by: Rossana Romero).

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: There is plural marking throughout.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plpl/??sgpl

Examples:

(1)     Elchicoyelhombrecorren.
theboyandthemanrun.pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     *Elchicoyelhombrecorre.
theboyandthemanrun.sg
`The boy and the man run.'
(3)     Elchicoyloshombrescorren.
theboyandthe.plmenrun.pl
`The boy and the men run.'
(4)     *Elchicoyloshombrescorre.
theboyandthe.plmenrun.sg
`The boy and the men run.'
(5)     Loschicosyelhombrecorren.
the.plboysandthemanrun.pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(6)     ??Loschicosyelhombrecorre.
the.plboysandthemanrun.sg
`The boys and the man run.'

VS order

Pattern: VS order seems to favor closest/first conjunct agreement. But resolved agreement is also possible. As for two singular conjuncts, the informant notes that plural agreement is possible with an intonational break: ``Corren, el chico y el hombre.")

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgsgsg/?pl
plpl/??sgpl

Examples:

(7)     Correelchicoyelhombre.
run.sgtheboyandtheman
`The boy and the man run.'
(8)     *Correnelchicoyelhombre.
run.pltheboyandtheman
`The boy and the man run.'
(9)     Correelchicoyloshombres.
run.sgtheboyandthe.plmen
`The boy and the men run.`
(10)     ?Correnelchicoyloshombres.
run.pltheboyandthe.plmen
`The boy and the men run.`
(11)     Correnloschicosyelhombre.
run.plthe.plboysandtheman
`The boys and the man run.'
(12)     ??Correloschicosyelhombre.
run.sgthe.plboysandtheman
`The boys and the man run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: There is plural throughout.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgpl/??sgpl/??sg
plpl/??sgpl

Examples:

(13)     Elchicooelhombrecorren.
theboyorthemanrun.pl
`The boy or the man run'
(14)     ??Elchicooelhombrecorre.
theboyorthemanrun.sg
`The boy or the man run'
(15)     Elchicooloshombrescorren.
theboyorthe.plmenrun.pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(16)     ??Elchicooloshombrescorre.
theboyorthe.plmenrun.sg
`The boy or the men run.'
(17)     Loschicosoelhombrecorren.
the.plboysorthemanrun.pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(18)     ??Loschicosoelhombrecorre.
the.plboysorthemanrun.sg
`The boys or the man run.'

VS order

Pattern: With two singular disjuncts, plural marking or singular marking on the verb is fine. If the two disjuncts mismatch in number, closest/first disjunct agreement takes place.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgsg/plsg/??pl
plplpl

Examples:

(19)     Correnelchicooelhombre.
run.pltheboyandtheman
`The boy and the man run.'
(20)     Correelchicooelhombre.
run.sgtheboyandtheman
`The boy and the man run.'
(21)     Correelchicooloshombres.
run.sgtheboyorthe.plmen
`The boy or the men run.'
(22)     ??Correnelchicooloshombres.
run.pltheboyorthe.plmen
`The boy or the men run.'
(23)     Correnloschicosoelhombre.
run.plthe.plboysortheman
`The boys or the man run.'
(24)     *Correloschicosoelhombre.
run.sgthe.plboysortheman
`The boys or the man run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: Mismatching person is resolved to 1st person when involving a 1st person conjunct and to 3rd person otherwise. (Number is resolved to plural.) Note that 2pl and 3pl are syncretic, written as ``2~3pl''.

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl2~3pl
31pl2~3pl

Examples:

(25)     *Yoycorro.
Iandyourun.1sg
`I and you run.'
(26)     *Yoycorres.
Iandyourun.2sg
`I and you run.'
(27)     Yoycorremos.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(28)     *Yoycorren.
Iandyourun.3pl
`I and you run.'
(29)     *Túyyocorro.
youandIrun.1sg
`You and I run.'
(30)     *Túyyocorres.
youandIrun.2sg
`You and I run.'
(31)     yyocorremos.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(32)     *Túyyocorren.
youandIrun.3pl
`You and I run.'
(33)     *Yoyélcorro.
Iandherun.1sg
`I and he run.'
(34)     *Yoyélcorre.
Iandherun.3sg
`I and he run.'
(35)     Yoyélcorremos.
Iandherun.1pl
`I and he run.'
(36)     *Yoyélcorren.
Iandherun.3pl
`I and he run.'
(37)     *Élyyocorro.
heandIrun.1sg
`He and I run.'
(38)     *Élyyocorre.
heandIrun.3sg
`He and I run.'
(39)     Élyyocorremos.
heandIrun.1pl
`He and I run.'
(40)     *Élyyocorren.
heandIrun.3pl
`He and I run.'
(41)     *Túyélcorres.
youandherun.2sg
`You and he run.'
(42)     *Túyélcorre.
youandherun.3sg
`You and he run.'
(43)     yélcorren.
youandherun.3pl
`You and he run.'
(44)     *Élycorres.
heandyourun.2sg
`He and you run.'
(45)     *Élycorre.
heandyourun.3sg
`He and you run.'
(46)     Élycorren.
heandyourun.3pl
`He and you run.'

VS order

Pattern: All cases either allow closest/first conjunct agreement or resolved agreement following the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. In the former case, number is resolved to singular, in the latter to plural. As before the syncretic form for 2nd and 3rd plural is written as ``2~3pl''.

1st | 2nd123
11sg/1pl1sg/1pl/2~3pl
22sg/1pl/2~3pl2sg/2~3pl
33sg/1pl/2~3pl3sg/2~3pl

Examples:

(47)     Corroyoytú.
run.1sgIandyou
`I and you run.'
(48)     *Corresyoytú.
run.2sgIandyou
`I and you run.'
(49)     Corremosyoytú.
run.1plIandyou
`I and you run.'
(50)     *Correnyoytú.
run.3plIandyou
`I and you run.'
(51)     *Corroyyo.
run.1sgyouandI
`You and I run.'
(52)     Corresyyo.
run.2sgyouandI
`You and I run.'
(53)     Corremosyyo.
run1plyouandI
`You and I run.'
(54)     Correnyyo.
run.3plyouandI
`You and I run.'
(55)     Corroyoyél.
run.1sgIandhe
`I and he run.'
(56)     *Correyoyél.
run.3sgIandhe
`I and he run.'
(57)     Corremosyoyél.
run.1plIandhe
`I and he run.'
(58)     Correnyoyél.
run.3plIandhe
`I and he run.'
(59)     *Corroélyyo.
run.1sgheandI
`He and I run.'
(60)     Correélyyo.
run.3sgheandI
`He and I run.'
(61)     Corremosélyyo.
run.1plheandI
`He and I run.'
(62)     Correnélyyo.
run.3plheandI
`He and I run.'
(63)     Corresyél.
run.2sgyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(64)     *Correyél.
run.3sgyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(65)     Correnyél.
run.3plyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(66)     *Corresélytú.
run.2sgheandyou
`He and you run.'
(67)     Correélytú.
run.3sgheandyou
`He and you run.'
(68)     Correnélytú.
run.3plheandyou
`He and you run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: Mismatching person is resolved to 1st person when involving a 1st person disjunct and to 3rd person otherwise. (Number is resolved to plural.) As before, ``2~3pl'' means that the 2nd and 3rd plural form are syncretic.

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl2~3pl
31pl2~3pl

Examples:

(69)     *Yoocorro.
Ioryourun.1sg
`I or you run.'
(70)     *Yoocorres.
Ioryourun.2sg
`I or you run.'
(71)     Yoocorremos.
Ioryourun.1pl
`I or you run.'
(72)     *Yoocorren.
Ioryourun.3pl
`I or you run.'
(73)     *Túoyocorro.
youorIrun.1sg
`You or I run.'
(74)     *Túoyocorres.
youorIrun.2sg
`You or I run.'
(75)     oyocorremos.
youorIrun.1pl
`You or I run.'
(76)     *Túoyocorren.
youorIrun.3pl
`You or I run.'
(77)     *Yooélcorro.
Iorherun.1sg
`I or he run.'
(78)     *Yooélcorre.
Iorherun.3sg
`I or he run.'
(79)     Yooélcorremos.
Iorherun.1pl
`I or he run.'
(80)     *Yooélcorren.
Iorherun.3pl
`I or he run.'
(81)     *Éloyocorro.
heorIrun.1sg
`He or I run.'
(82)     *Éloyocorre.
heorIrun.3sg
`He or I run.'
(83)     Éloyocorremos.
heorIrun.1pl
`He or I run.'
(84)     *Éloyocorren.
heorIrun.3pl
`He or I run.'
(85)     *Túoélcorres.
youorherun.2sg
`You or he run.'
(86)     *Túoélcorre.
youorherun.3sg
`You or he run.'
(87)     oélcorren.
youorherun.3pl
`You or he run.'
(88)     *Élocorres.
heoryourun.2sg
`He or you run.'
(89)     *Élocorre.
heoryourun.3sg
`He or you run.'
(90)     Élocorren.
heoryourun.3pl
`He or you run.'

VS order

Pattern: All cases either allow closest/first conjunct agreement or resolved agreement following the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. In the former case, number is resolved to singular, in the latter to plural. As before the syncretic form for 2nd and 3rd plural is written as ``2~3pl''.

1st | 2nd123
11sg/1pl1sg/1pl
22sg/1pl/2~3pl2sg/2~3pl
33sg/1pl3sg/2~3pl

Examples:

(91)     Corroyootú.
run.1sgIoryou
`I or you run.'
(92)     *Corresyootú.
run.2sgIoryou
`I or you run.'
(93)     Corremosyootú.
run.1plIoryou
`I or you run.'
(94)     *Correnyootú.
run.3plIoryou
`I or you run.'
(95)     *Corrooyo.
run.1sgyouorI
`You or I run.'
(96)     Corresoyo.
run.2sgyouorI
`You or I run.'
(97)     Corremosoyo.
run1plyouorI
`You or I run.'
(98)     Correnoyo.
run.3plyouorI
`You or I run.'
(99)     Corroyooél.
run.1sgIorhe
`I or he run.'
(100)     *Correyooél.
run.3sgIorhe
`I or he run.'
(101)     Corremosyooél.
run.1plIorhe
`I or he run.'
(102)     *Correnyooél.
run.3plIorhe
`I or he run.'
(103)     *Corroéloyo.
run.1sgheorI
`He or I run.'
(104)     Correéloyo.
run.3sgheorI
`He or I run.'
(105)     Corremoséloyo.
run.1plheorI
`He or I run.'
(106)     *Correnéloyo.
run.3sgheorI
`He or I run.'
(107)     Corresoél.
run.2sgyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(108)     *Correoél.
run.3sgyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(109)     Correnoél.
run.3plyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(110)     *Corresélotú.
run.2sgheoryou
`He or you run.'
(111)     Correélotú.
run.3sgheoryou
`He or you run.'
(112)     Correnélotú.
run.3plheoryou
`He or you run.'