A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

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(Old Database about Coordination)

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Cite as

Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Indo-European (Slavic)
Countries:Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Estonia, Latvia and other neighboring post-Soviet states, and Russian diaspora
Number of speakers:150 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV
Coordination types:and, or

Data Collection

Data were entered by three native speakers via an online survey.

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     mal'čikimužčinabegut
boy.sgandman.sgrun.3pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     mal'čikimužčinabegut
boy.plandman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(3)     mal'čikimužčinybegut
boy.sgandman.plrun.3pl
`The boy and the men run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: With two singular conjuncts, the verb is singular. If the two conjuncts mismatch in number, number is resolved to plural.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgsgpl
plplpl

Examples:

(6)     mal'čikilimužčinabežit
boy.sgorman.sgrun.3sg
`The boy or the man run.'
(7)     mal'čikiilimužčinabegut
boy.plorman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(8)     mal'čikilimužčinybegut
boy.sgorman.plrun.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: Speakers prefer to use a comitative construction. A coordination structure seems to be possible for some speakers in combinations with 1st and 2nd person. Then, person seems to be resolved according to the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Number is resolved to plural.) Coordination of 1st and 3rd person (plural) are ineffable.

1st | 2nd123
11plineff
21pl
3ineff

Examples:

(11)     Tyijabežim.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(12)     Jaitybežim.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(13)     *Myionybežim/begut.
weandtheyrun.1pl/run.3pl
`We and they run.'
(14)     *Oniimybežim/begut.
theyandwerun.1pl/run.3pl
`They and we run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: There is closest conjunct agreement.

1st | 2nd123
12sg3pl
21sg
31pl

Examples:

(15)     tyilijabegu
youorIrun.1sg
`You or I run.'
(16)     jaili'tybežiš'
Ioryourun.2sg
`I or you run.'
(17)     myilionibegut
weortheyrun.3pl
`We or they run.'
(18)     oniilimybežim
theyorwerun.1pl
`They or we run.'